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By around , hundreds of water-powered mills were producing textiles, lumber, shingles and iron in automated processes here. And in even more workshops in the hills, highly skilled workers manufactured knives, tools, weapons and harnesses, using water, coal and charcoal.
History has no established name for this phase of the industrial revolution, but one could call it the early water-powered industrial revolution.
As the machines became bigger and moved from water power to steam power, locally mined coal and charcoal became expensive and there was not enough of it.
The Bergische industry ordered more and more coal from the new coal mining area along the Ruhr. By , there were almost coal mines in operation in the Ruhr area, in and around the central cities of Duisburg, Essen, Bochum and Dortmund.
The coal was exported or processed in coking ovens into coke , used in blast furnaces , producing iron and steel. In this period the name Ruhrgebiet became common.
Before the coal deposits along the Ruhr were exhausted, the mining industry moved northward to the Emscher and finally to the Lippe, drilling ever deeper mines as it went.
With the construction of the Cologne-Minden railway in the late 19th century, several iron works were built within the borders of the present-day city of Oberhausen.
The population climbed rapidly. Many of them were Polish speakers and they were treated as second class citizens. By the end of the Prussian Kingdom in , over 3 million people lived in the Ruhrgebiet and the new coal-mining district had become the largest industrial region of Europe.
At a big Essen company, F. They were partly women, partly forced labourers. The January Uprising in became popular among the working class in the Ruhr, and the region quickly turned communist.
But when the uprising was snuffed out by the Freikorps , everything seemed to be fine until the Kapp government then fought the Weimar government, until the Weimar government came out victorious, but during that time, a return to an autocratic state was seen as the only way forward.
Large parts of the working class went out on strike, but in the Ruhr, striking workers successfully managed to take government buildings, shocking the rest of Germany.
An armed revolt was then instigated, and the Red Guard then installed a branch in the Ruhr. The people there declared the Ruhr an independent, socialist republic, but the Freikorp came back into the scene and put down the movement.
In March , French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg, which under the Treaty of Versailles formed part of the demilitarized Rhineland.
In January the whole Ruhrgebiet was occupied as a reprisal after Germany failed to fulfill World War I reparation payments as agreed in the Versailles Treaty.
The German government responded with " passive resistance ", letting workers and civil servants refuse orders and instructions by the occupation forces.
Production and transport came to a standstill and the financial consequences contributed to German hyperinflation and ruined public finances in Germany and France, as well as several other countries.
Passive resistance was called off in late , allowing Germany to implement a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan , which led to the withdrawal of the French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr in However, the occupation of the Ruhr caused several direct and indirect consequences on the German economy and government.
Due to the lack of production caused by foreign occupation, the German economy lacked the domestic abilities to pay war reparations without intentionally causing inflation.
Moreover, the government became increasingly unpopular due to its "passive resistance" to German production. The halt in domestic production made war reparations impossible to pay.
On 7 March ,  Adolf Hitler took a massive gamble by sending 30, troops into the Rhineland. As Hitler and other Nazis admitted, the French army alone could have destroyed the Wehrmacht.
All restraint on German rearmament could now be removed, and was. Hitler could now continue eroding the alliance system that France had built since The devastating bombing raids of Dortmund on 12 March with 1, aircraft — Lancasters, Halifaxes, 68 Mosquitos — was a record to a single target in the whole of World War II.
More than 4, tons of bombs were dropped through the city centre and the south of the city. After the war, the Level of Industry plans for Germany abolished all German munitions factories and civilian industries that could support them and severely restricted civilian industries of military potential.
The French Monnet Plan pushed for an internationalization of the area,  and the subsequent Ruhr Agreement was imposed as a condition for the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Parallel to the question of political control of the Ruhr, the Allies tried to decrease German industrial potential by limitations on production and dismantling of factories and steel plants, predominantly in the Ruhr.
By , after the virtual completion of the by-then much watered-down "level of industry" plans, equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants in the west, and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6.
After , Germany was hard hit by a worldwide economic crisis, soaring oil prices, and increasing unemployment, which jumped from , in to 1.
The Ruhr region was hardest hit, as the easy-to-reach coal mines became exhausted, and German coal was no longer competitive.
Likewise the Ruhr steel industry went into sharp decline, as its prices were undercut by lower-cost suppliers such as Japan.
The welfare system provided a safety net for the large number of unemployed workers, and many factories reduced their labor force and began to concentrate on high-profit specialty items.
As demand for coal decreased after , the area went through phases of structural crisis see steel crisis and industrial diversification, first developing traditional heavy industry, then moving into service industries and high technology.
The air and water pollution of the area are largely a thing of the past although some issues take a long time to solve. The use of the term "Ruhr" for the industrial region started in Britain only after World War I, when French and Belgian troops had occupied the Ruhr district and seized its prime industrial assets in lieu of unpaid reparations in A page publication seems to be responsible for the use of "Ruhr" as a short form of the then more common "Ruhr District" or "Ruhr Valley": In the same year, "Objections by the United States to discriminatory regulations on exports from the occupied region of the Ruhr" was published in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States.
The Rhine itself runs through the heart of the Ruhr district. The name preferred for the region in this dictionary is "Ruhrgebiet", followed by "Ruhr Valley".
The Ruhr has an oceanic climate in spite of its inland position, with mildening winds from the Atlantic travelling over the lowlands to moderate temperature extremes, in spite of its relatively northerly latitude that sees significant variety in daylight hours.
A consequence of the marine influence is a cloudy and wet climate with low sunshine hours. Summers normally average in the low 20s, with winters being somewhat above the freezing point.
The local dialect of German is commonly called Ruhrdeutsch or Ruhrpottdeutsch , although there is really no uniform dialect that justifies designation as a single dialect.
It is rather a working-class sociolect with influences from the various dialects found in the area and changing even with the professions of the workers.
A major common influence stems from the coal mining tradition of the area. During the nineteenth century, the Ruhr attracted up to , ethnic Poles , Masurians and Silesians from East Prussia and Silesia in a migration known as Ostflucht flight from the east.
By , the Ruhrgebiet had around 3,, inhabitants. Most of the new inhabitants came from Eastern Europe, but immigrants also came from France , Ireland , and the United Kingdom.
It has been claimed that immigrants came to the Ruhr from over different countries. Almost all their descendants today speak German as a first language, and for various reasons, they do not identify with their Polish roots and traditions, often their Polish family names only remain as a sign of their past.
The Industrial Heritage Trail German: Route der Industriekultur links tourist attractions related to the European Route of Industrial Heritage in the Ruhr area.
Ruhr is known for its numerous cultural institutions, many of which enjoy international reputation. Ruhr has three major opera houses and more than 10 theaters and stages.
Each year in spring time, there is the Klavier-Festival Ruhr in the Ruhr area with 50 to 80 events of classical and jazz music.
The Ruhr region has with 22 universities and colleges and more than ,  students, the highest density of further education establishments anywhere in Germany.
These include five universities alone in the cities of Bochum , Duisburg , Dortmund , Essen and Witten. In addition, Folkwang University of the Arts is an internationally acclaimed art college with its base in the Ruhr region.
Furthermore, the universities are not the only places in the Ruhr region where academic qualifications can be obtained.
There are 17 different universities of applied sciences which offer students to have the opportunity to undertake practice-relevant and qualified studies in various subjects, such as economics, logistics, administration or management .
Students enrolled at one of the UA Ruhr universities can attend lectures and seminars at all three institutions without having to pay a visiting student fee.
Consequently, they have many options to specialize in and to explore their chosen disciplines in depth. Bundesliga Latein gewinnen und stieg so in die 2.
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Platz der Liga ab. Bundesliga halten und steig wieder in die Regionalliga West Latein ab. Die Formation gewann die Liga erreichte mit dem 2. Platz des Aufstiegsturniers den Aufstieg in die Oberliga West auf.
Seitdem tanzte das Team in der Oberliga West Latein. Between and , the coal mines all closed. Other industries, such as automotive , compensated for the loss of jobs.
The Opel Astra is assembled at the Opel Bochum plant ; however, by , the factory was in serious financial difficulties  and in December , Opel announced that it would stop vehicle production at the Bochum plant in In the course of a comprehensive community reform in , Wattenscheid , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the city of Bochum.
A local referendum against the integration failed. In , the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und Hattingen was opened.
In , Nokia closed down its production plant, causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local suppliers. On 9 November , Kristallnacht , the Jewish citizens of Bochum were attacked.
The synagogue was set on fire and there was rioting against Jewish citizens. The first Jews from Bochum were deported to Nazi concentration camps and many Jewish institutions and homes were destroyed.
Some Jewish citizens are known by name to have been killed in the Holocaust , including 19 who were younger than 16 years old. He and his wife fled to Palestine.
In December , the Jewish elementary school teacher Else Hirsch began organising groups of children and adolescents to be sent to the Netherlands and England , sending ten groups in all.
Many Jewish children and those from other persecuted groups were taken in by Dutch families and thereby saved from abduction or deportation and death.
Because the Ruhr region was an area of high residential density and a centre for the manufacture of weapons, it was a major target in the war.
Women with young children, school children and the homeless fled or were evacuated to safer areas, leaving cities largely deserted to the arms industry, coal mines and steel plants and those unable to leave.
Bochum was first bombed heavily in May and June On 4 November , in an attack involving British bombers, the steel plant, Bochumer Verein, was hit.
One of the largest steel plants in Germany,  more than 10, high-explosive and , incendiary bombs were stored there, setting off a conflagration that destroyed the surrounding neighbourhoods.
The town centre of Bochum was a strategic target during the Oil Campaign. In air raids on Bochum, over 1, bombs were dropped on Bochum and Gelsenkirchen.
Most of the remaining buildings were damaged, many with only one usable room. Only 1, houses in Bochum remained undamaged after the war.
Only two of schools remained unscathed; others were totally destroyed. A resident of neighbouring Essen was quoted on 23 April as saying, "Today, I used up my last potato The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Bochum in April After the war, Bochum was occupied by the British , who established two camps to house people displaced by the war.
The majority of them were former Polish Zwangsarbeiter , forced labourers , many of them from the Bochumer Verein. One found in October in Bochum town centre led to the evacuation of and involved hundreds of emergency workers.
Bochum has a municipal zoo, a large municipal park and a number of other gardens and parks. The Ruhr University Botanical Gardens has thousands of plants from all over the world.
The Geological Garden was the first of its kind in Germany. In , the property came under environmental protection and a decade later was turned into a geological garden.
Bochum is a cultural centre of the Ruhr region. There is a municipal theatre, the Schauspielhaus Bochum , and about 20 smaller theatres and stages.
The musical Starlight Express , which opened in , is the longest-running musical in Germany. All public transport companies in the Ruhr region are run under the umbrella of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr , which provides a uniform ticket system valid for the entire area.
The Ruhr region is well-integrated into the national rail system, the Deutsche Bahn , for both passenger and goods services, each city in the region has at least one or more train stations.
The Ruhr area also contains the longest tram system in the world, with tram and Stadtbahn services from Witten to Krefeld. Originally the system was even bigger, it was possible to travel from Unna to Bad Honnef without using railway or bus services.
The A1, A2 and A3 are mostly used by through traffic, while the other autobahns have a more regional function. Both the A44 and the A52 have several missing links, in various stages of planning.
Some missing sections are currently in construction or planned to be constructed in the near future. Additional expressways serve as bypasses and local routes, especially around Dortmund and Bochum.
The first Autobahns in the Ruhr opened during the mids. Due to the density of the network, and the number of alternative routes, traffic volumes are generally lower than other major metropolitan areas in Europe.
Traffic congestion is an everyday occurrence, but far less so than in the Randstad in the Netherlands, another polycentric urban area.
Most important Autobahns have six lanes, but there are no eight-lane Autobahns in the Ruhr. Dortmund Airport in the Eastern Ruhr is a mid-sized airport, offering scheduled flights to domestic and European destinations and its approximately 1.
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